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Главная » Файлы » Английский для студентов » Лингвистика

Анатомические термины
[ Скачать с сервера (130.7 Kb) ] 15.11.2013, 14:15

ANATOMICAL TERMS

When anatomists or doctors discuss the human body, they refer to specific areas in accordance with a universally accepted standard position called the Anatomical position.  It is essential to understand this position, because much of the body terminology refers to this body positioning, regardless of the position the body happens to be in.  The anatomical position in humans is standing erect, facing forward, arms at sides and palms forward.  Quadrupedal (four footed) organisms have a slightly different position, which is standing erect, facing forward, and all four feet on the ground.  This difference in positions results in different connotations for a four-legged animal compared to a human.

Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How is called a universally accepted standard position of the human body? 2. Is it essential to understand this position? 3. What is the anatomical position in humans? 4.  

Superior/inferior (above/below): these terms refer to placement of a body structure along the long axis of the body.  Superior structures always appear above other structures.  For example, the nose is superior to the mouth, and the abdomen is inferior to the chest region.

 

Скажите по-английски: эти термины относятся к расположению человеческого тела; верхние структуры располагаются над нижними; например; нос выше рта; живот ниже области груди.


Anterior/posterior (front/back): In humans the most anterior structures are those that are most forward, the face, chest and abdomen.  Posterior structures or surfaces are those toward the backside of the body. For instance, the spine is posterior to the heart.


Скажите по-английски: предние части; задние части; перед задней частью тела; спинной хребет сзади от сердца.

 

Medial/lateral (towards the midline/away from the midline): The ear is lateral to the bridge of the nose; the sternum (breastbone) is medial to the ribs.


medial – средний

lateral – боковой

sternum – грудина

the ribs – рёбра

The next four terms are more absolute.  That is their applicability is not relative to a particular body position, and they consistently have the same meaning in all vertebrate animals.


applicability - применимость

relative – родственный

particular – особенный, специфический

consistently – последовательно

vertebrate – позвоночное животное

Cephalic/caudal (towards the head/away from the head): In humans these terms are used interchangeably with superior and inferior. But in four-legged animals they are synonymous with anterior and posterior respectively.


cephalic – головной

caudal – хвостовой

interchangeably – попеременно

synonymous – синонимичны

Dorsal/ventral (backside/belly side): these terms are used chiefly in discussing the comparative anatomy of animals, assuming the animal is standing.  Dorsum is Latin meaning "back", thus dorsal refers to the backside of the animal's body or of any other structure.  For instance, the posterior surface of the leg is its dorsal surface.  The term ventral derives from the Latin term venter, meaning "belly", and thus refers to the belly side of animals. In humans the term ventral and dorsal may be used interchangeably with the terms anterior and posterior, but in four-legged animals ventral and dorsal are synonymous with inferior and superior respectively.

Proximal/distal (nearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment): These terms are used primarily to locate various areas of the body limbs. For example, the fingers are distal to the elbow; the knee is proximal to the toes.

Superficial/deep (towards or at the body surface/away from the body surface or more internal): these terms locate body organs according to their relative closeness to the body surface.  For example, the lungs are deep to the rib cage, and the skin is

superficial to the skeletal muscles.

superficial - поверхностный

deep – глубокий

relative closeness – относительная близость

rib cage – грудная клетка

the skeletal muscles – скелетные мускулы

Central/peripheral (principle part/extensions from the principle part or to the side of principle part):

Peripheral – периферийный

Principle – главный

Extension – расширение, удлинение, растяжение

 

Parietal/visceral (wall of a cavitylorgans -within a cavity): These terms refers to organs within a body cavity.

parietal – париетальный, пристеночный

visceral – относящийся ко внутренним органам

cavity – впадина

Before continuing, use a human torso model, a skeleton or your own body to specify the relationship between the following structures.  Use the correct anatomical terminology.

 

The wrist is _________________________ to the hand, but ______________________ to the shoulder.

The trachea (windpipe) is ______________ to the spine

The brain is _________________________ to the spinal cord

The kidneys are ______________________ to the liver

The tip of the nose is __________________ to the cheekbones.

 

Trachea (windpipe) - трахея

spinal cord – спинной мозг

kidney – почка

liver – печень

tip of the nose – кончик носа

cheekbones - скулы


BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS

The body is three-dimensional and, in order to observe its internal structures, it is often helpful and necessary to make use of a section, or cut.  When the section is made through the body wall or through an organ, it is made along an imaginary surface or line called a plane.

Anatomists commonly refer to three planes or sections, which lie at right angles to one another.

Sagittal plane: A plane that runs longitudinally, dividing the body into right and left parts, is referred to as a sagittal plane.  If it divides the body into equal parts, right down the median plane of the body, it is called a midsagittal, or median, plane.  All other planes are referred to as parasagittal planes.

Frontal plane: Sometimes called a coronal plane, the frontal plane is a longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts.

Transverse plane: A transverse plane runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane, the sections are commonly called cross sections.

 




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