anatomists or doctors discuss the human body, they refer to specific areas in
accordance with a universally accepted standard position called the Anatomical
position. It is essential to understand
this position, because much of the body terminology refers to this body
positioning, regardless of the position the body happens to be in. The anatomical position in humans is standing
erect, facing forward, arms at sides and palms forward. Quadrupedal (four footed) organisms have a
slightly different position, which is standing erect, facing forward, and all
four feet on the ground. This difference
in positions results in different connotations for a four-legged animal
compared to a human.
Ответьте на вопросы:
1. How is
called a universally accepted standard position of the human body? 2. Is it essential
to understand this position? 3. What is the anatomical position in humans? 4.
(above/below): these terms refer to placement of a body structure along the
long axis of the body. Superior
structures always appear above other structures. For example, the nose is superior to the
mouth, and the abdomen is inferior to the chest region.
эти термины относятся к расположению человеческого тела; верхние структуры
располагаются над нижними; например; нос выше рта; живот ниже области груди.
(front/back): In humans the most anterior structures are those that are most
forward, the face, chest and abdomen.
Posterior structures or surfaces are those toward the backside of the
body. For instance, the spine is posterior to the heart.
по-английски: предние части; задние части; перед
задней частью тела; спинной хребет сзади от сердца.
Medial/lateral (towards the midline/away from the
midline): The ear is lateral to the bridge of the nose; the sternum (breastbone)
is medial to the ribs.
medial – средний
lateral – боковой
sternum – грудина
the ribs – рёбра
four terms are more absolute. That is
their applicability is not relative to a particular body position, and they
consistently have the same meaning in all vertebrate animals.
– особенный, специфический
consistently – последовательно
vertebrate – позвоночное животное
(towards the head/away from the head): In humans these terms are used
interchangeably with superior and inferior. But in four-legged animals they are
synonymous with anterior and posterior respectively.
cephalic – головной
caudal – хвостовой
interchangeably – попеременно
synonymous – синонимичны
(backside/belly side): these terms are used chiefly in discussing the
comparative anatomy of animals, assuming the animal is standing. Dorsum
is Latin meaning "back", thus dorsal refers to the backside of the
animal's body or of any other structure.
For instance, the posterior surface of the leg is its dorsal
surface. The term ventral derives from the Latin term venter, meaning "belly", and thus refers to the belly
side of animals. In humans the term ventral
and dorsal may be used interchangeably
with the terms anterior and posterior, but in four-legged animals
ventral and dorsal are synonymous with inferior and superior respectively.
(nearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of
attachment): These terms are used primarily to locate various areas of the body
limbs. For example, the fingers are distal to the elbow; the knee is proximal
to the toes.
Superficial/deep (towards or at the body surface/away from the body
surface or more internal): these terms locate body organs according to their
relative closeness to the body surface.
For example, the lungs are deep to the rib cage, and the skin is
superficial to the skeletal muscles.
superficial - поверхностный
deep – глубокий
relative closeness – относительная близость
rib cage – грудная клетка
the skeletal muscles – скелетные мускулы
Central/peripheral (principle part/extensions from the
principle part or to the side of principle part):
Peripheral – периферийный
Principle – главный
Extension – расширение, удлинение, растяжение
Parietal/visceral (wall of a cavitylorgans -within a
cavity): These terms refers to organs within a body cavity.
parietal – париетальный, пристеночный
visceral – относящийся ко внутренним органам
cavity – впадина
Before continuing, use a human torso
model, a skeleton or your own body to specify the relationship between the
following structures. Use the correct
The wrist is
_________________________ to the hand, but ______________________ to the
The trachea (windpipe) is
______________ to the spine
The brain is
_________________________ to the spinal cord
The kidneys are
______________________ to the liver
The tip of the nose is
__________________ to the cheekbones.
Trachea (windpipe) - трахея
spinal cord – спинной мозг
kidney – почка
liver – печень
tip of the nose – кончик носа
cheekbones - скулы
BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS
The body is
three-dimensional and, in order to observe its internal structures, it is often
helpful and necessary to make use of a section, or cut. When the section is made through the body
wall or through an organ, it is made along an imaginary surface or line called
commonly refer to three planes or sections, which lie at right angles to one
plane: A plane that runs longitudinally, dividing the body into right and left
parts, is referred to as a sagittal plane.
If it divides the body into equal parts, right down the median plane of
the body, it is called a midsagittal, or median, plane. All other planes are referred to as
Frontal plane: Sometimes called a coronal plane, the frontal plane is a
longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and
plane: A transverse plane runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior
and inferior parts. When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane, the
sections are commonly called cross sections.